According to the Julian and Gregorian calendars, October is the tenth month and the sixth month to have 31 days in a year, and the eighth month according to the calendar of Romulus. The name October is derived from the Latin and Greek words 'octo' meaning "eight", as it was originally the eighth month in the Roman calendar before January and February were added. October is usually associated with spring in some parts of the Southern Hemisphere and autumn in some parts of the Northern Hemisphere.
In India, October is also known for several holidays and celebrations. It is a month filled with numerous festivals, such as Gandhi Jayanti on 2 October, Sharad Navratri on 15 October and Durga Puja on 22 October, which is of great significance to the Hindus and is celebrated enthusiastically.
Gandhi Jayanti is the birth anniversary of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, commonly known as Mahatma Gandhi. Gandhi Jayanti is celebrated not only in India but also in other parts of the world. While the United Nations also recognised the day as the International Day of Nonviolence, one of Gandhi's visions of nonviolent resistance was a means of bringing about social and political change. He played an instrumental role in India's struggle for independence from British colonial rule, for which Gandhi is revered in India as the "Father of the Nation". Gandhi Jayanti is a day of remembrance and reflection on the life of Mahatma Gandhi and his teachings of peace, unity and harmony.
The day marks the birth anniversary of the second Prime Minister of India, the Late Lal Bahadur Shastri. He was born on 2 October 1904 in Mughalsarai, Uttar Pradesh. His real name was Lal Bahadur Srivastava, and he was designated with the title 'Shastri' during his graduation. People celebrate this day to remember the immense dedication and contribution of Bahadur to the freedom of India. On this day, people adorn the idols of Lal Bahadur Shastri with flowers, garlands and candles. Lal Bahadur Shastri Jayanti holds a special significance in India and is celebrated with utmost devotion, joy and enthusiasm.
Durga Puja is one of the biggest festivals celebrated in different parts of India. In some parts of India, Durga Puja is also known as Navratri, where Navratri is a 9-day festival, and Durga Puja is a 5-day festival. Goddess Durga is worshipped in this festival where it is believed that during this period, the goddess descends on earth with her 4 children. The festival marks the victory of Goddess Durga over the demon Mahishasura. Durga Puja is a unified festival where people celebrate this festival with their family and friends.
Dussehra is one of the significant Hindu festivals, which is usually celebrated in October or November across the country. It is believed that on this day, Lord Rama destroyed the demon king Ravana; others associate it with the birth of Goddess Lakshmi, and some believe the victory of Goddess Durga demon Mahishasur. Goddess Lakshmi and Lord Ganesha are worshipped in some places, and Goddess Kali is worshipped in some places on this auspicious festival. The highlight of Dussehra is Ravana Dahan, a symbolic ritual that symbolises the victory of good over evil. People celebrate this day with great joy, enthusiasm and devotion with the exchange of gifts, sweets, and traditional food.