What is 10-K?

Guide to Company Financials


Guide to Company Financials

When it comes to understanding the financial health of publicly traded companies, the 10-K report is a crucial resource. This comprehensive document, mandated by the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), offers a detailed overview of a company's performance, far surpassing the information found in its annual report.

What exactly is a 10-K?

A 10-K report, filed annually by publicly traded companies, serves as a comprehensive disclosure of their financial performance and operations. It is designed to provide investors with a deep understanding of the company's history, organisational structure, financial statements, earnings per share, subsidiaries, executive compensation, and other pertinent data. 

Unlike the annual report, which is sent to shareholders prior to an annual meeting, the 10-K is submitted to the SEC to ensure investors have access to essential information before making investment decisions.

Why are 10-Ks Important?

Despite their complexity, 10-K reports are invaluable tools for investors seeking to make informed decisions about their investments.

By delving into the wealth of information contained within a 10-K, investors can gain a comprehensive understanding of a company's operations, risks, and financial standing. This enables them to assess the company's performance and potential for growth or decline accurately.

<div class="paragraphs"><p><strong>10-K</strong></p></div>
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Sections of a 10-K

A 10-K report typically comprises five distinct sections, each providing essential insights into different aspects of the company:

  • Business Overview: This section offers a detailed description of the company's main operations, including its products and services and how it generates revenue.

  • Risk Factors: Here, the company outlines any potential risks it faces, providing investors with a clear understanding of the challenges and uncertainties that may impact its performance.

  • Selected Financial Data: This section presents specific financial information about the company over the last five years, offering investors a snapshot of its recent performance.

  • Management’s Discussion and Analysis (MD&A): In this part, company management provides an analysis of the company's financial condition and results of operations, offering insights into its performance and future prospects.

  • Financial Statements and Supplementary Data: This section includes the company’s audited financial statements, including the income statement, balance sheets, and statement of cash flows. It also includes a letter from the independent auditor certifying the scope of their review.

Where to Find 10-Ks

Accessing 10-K filings is facilitated by their status as public information, available through multiple channels. Many companies conveniently provide them within the Investor Relations section of their websites.

Furthermore, investors can easily retrieve 10-K reports by utilising the search function dedicated to company filings on the SEC's Electronic Data Gathering, Analysis, and Retrieval (EDGAR) database.

<div class="paragraphs"><p><strong>10-K</strong></p></div>
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Filing Deadlines

The deadlines for filing the 10-K differ depending on the company's size. As per the guidelines set by the SEC, companies with a public float—representing shares available for trading—of $700 million or higher are required to submit their 10-K within 60 days after the conclusion of their fiscal year.

For companies with a float ranging between $75 million and $700 million, the deadline extends to 75 days. Meanwhile, companies with a public float of less than $75 million have a 90-day window to file their 10-K report.

Other SEC Filings

In addition to the 10-K, public companies are required to regularly file forms 10-Q and 8-K with the SEC. Form 10-Q provides quarterly updates on a company's performance, while Form 8-K discloses major events that shareholders need to be aware of.

In conclusion, understanding 10-K reports is essential for investors looking to make informed decisions about their investments. By familiarising themselves with the content and structure of these reports, investors can gain valuable insights into the financial health and performance of the companies in which they invest.

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