Guan Moye, known by his pen name Mo Yan, is a celebrated Chinese novelist and short story writer born on February 17, 1955. He has earned a reputation as one of the most famous and widely-read Chinese writers, even though his works have faced censorship and piracy. In 2012, Mo Yan received the Nobel Prize in Literature for his exceptional ability to merge hallucinatory realism with elements of folk tales, history, and contemporary issues in his writing.
Mo Yan's journey as a writer is deeply rooted in his early experiences and upbringing. He was born into a peasant family in Ping'an Village, Gaomi Township, located in the northeastern part of Shandong Province, China. He is the youngest of four siblings, with two older brothers and an older sister. Mo Yan's family belonged to the upper-middle peasant class, and their life was deeply influenced by the political and social upheavals of the time.
Mo Yan's formative years were marked by the tumultuous era of the Cultural Revolution, which began when he was just 11 years old. During this period, he left school to work as a farmer and later found employment at a cotton oil processing factory. Access to literature was limited, and the only available materials followed the socialist realist style, with themes revolving around class struggle and political conflict.
His experiences during the Cultural Revolution and the subsequent post-Revolution period significantly influenced his writing. Mo Yan joined the People's Liberation Army (PLA) when the Cultural Revolution came to an end. It was during his time in the army that he began to explore writing as an outlet for his creativity.
Mo Yan's literary journey began while he was still serving as a soldier, and he drew inspiration from both Chinese and foreign literature, including the works of William Faulkner and Gabriel García Márquez. In 1984, he received a literary award from the PLA Magazine and began his formal literary education at the People's Liberation Army Arts College. It was during this time that he adopted the pen name "Mo Yan."
Mo Yan's pen name, which translates to "don't speak" in Chinese, holds significant meaning. He has shared that the name was a response to his parent's advice to refrain from speaking his mind while outside their home. This was due to the sensitive political climate of China during the 1950s when he was growing up. Furthermore, his pen name reflects the thematic content of his writing, which often delves into Chinese political and sexual history.
In an interview, Mo Yan mentioned that he changed his "official name" to Mo Yan because he faced difficulties in receiving royalties under his pen name, further highlighting the complexities of navigating the Chinese literary landscape.
Mo Yan's literary career took off during the reform and opening up period, with the publication of numerous short stories and novels. One of his most well-known works, "Red Sorghum," was published in 1986. This novel, set in a non-chronological narrative style, explores the history of a Shandong family from 1923 to 1976, including the Second Sino-Japanese War, the 1949 Communist Revolution, and the Cultural Revolution. What makes it distinctive is its perspective, as it portrays these historical events from the viewpoint of invading Japanese soldiers.
His second novel, "The Garlic Ballads," is based on real events in Gaomi Township when farmers protested against a government that refused to purchase their crops. "The Republic of Wine" is a satirical work that centres on gastronomy and alcohol, using cannibalism as a metaphor for China's self-destructive tendencies. "Big Breasts & Wide Hips" explores themes related to female bodies and sexuality in a historical context, which sparked controversy in China due to its perceived negative portrayal of Communist soldiers.
Mo Yan's writing is characterised by its vivid and often graphic imagery. He is known for using hallucinatory realism and elements of black humour in his works. His ability to blur the lines between past and present, life and death, and good and evil is a hallmark of his storytelling.
Mo Yan's works have gained international acclaim and have been translated into English by Howard Goldblatt, a translator who effectively conveys Chinese culture to a global audience. Goldblatt's approach involves a combination of domestication and foreignisation techniques, ensuring that the essence of the original text is retained while making it accessible to non-Chinese readers.
The impact of Mo Yan's works extends beyond their literary merits. They have served as a reflection of the rapid modernisation of China, addressing the fear of losing cultural identity amid the country's transformation in the 1980s. Mo Yan's storytelling has the power to connect people across borders and nations, which aligns with his belief in the unifying force of literature.
Mo Yan's writing style is a product of various influences, drawing from the social realism of Lu Xun and the magical realism of Gabriel García Márquez. He is deeply inspired by traditional Chinese literature, particularly the folklore-based epic novel "Water Margin." His works also reflect the influence of classics like "Journey to the West" and "Dream of the Red Chamber."
Mo Yan's writing style is characterised by the blurring of distinctions between different aspects of life and human nature, making his stories captivating and thought-provoking. He often uses the backdrop of his hometown, Northeast Gaomi Township in Shandong province, to satirise the genre of socialist realism by placing workers and bureaucrats in absurd and unconventional situations.
Throughout his career, Mo Yan has produced a significant body of work, including novels, short stories, and novella collections. Some of his notable novels include "Red Sorghum," "The Garlic Ballads," "Big Breasts & Wide Hips," and "Life and Death Are Wearing Me Out." His short story and novella collections include "White Dog and the Swing," "Meeting the Masters," "Joy," and more.
Mo Yan's contributions to literature have been recognised with numerous awards and honours, both in China and internationally. Notably, he received the Nobel Prize in Literature in 2012. His other accolades include the Neustadt International Prize for Literature, the Kiriyama Prize, the Fukuoka Asian Culture Prize, and the Mao Dun Literature Prize, among others.
Several of Mo Yan's works have been adapted into film, showcasing the enduring appeal of his storytelling. "Red Sorghum," directed by Zhang Yimou, was one of the early adaptations. "The Sun Has Ears," "Happy Times," and "Nuan" are some of the other films that have brought his stories to the big screen.
Mo Yan's literary journey is a testament to the power of storytelling and its ability to transcend cultural and political barriers. His unique blend of hallucinatory realism, historical narratives, and elements of black humour has captivated readers worldwide. Despite the challenges he faced in his early life, Mo Yan has become a symbol of Chinese literature's enduring influence and the ability of stories to bridge the gaps between nations.